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Prose,Friedemann & Homburg, Andreas (1997a). Implementing energy efficiency measures from a psychological point of view and appendix.

Invited paper: International Conference "Energy Efficiency in Public and Municipal Buildings", EU Programme ECOS Ouverture, Session 5: Information, Awareness, Graz (Austria), July 9-11, 1997


Implementing energy efficiency measures
from a psychological point of view *


Friedemann Prose & Andreas Homburg


Climate Protection Project, Department of Psychology, University of Kiel



*invited paper: International Conference "Energy Efficiency in Public and Municipal Buildings",EU Programme ECOS Ouverture, Session 5: Information, Awareness, Graz ( Austria), July 9 -11, 1997.

1.0 Introduction

Many global environmental changes such as the greenhouse effect can be demonstrably attributed to human behaviour. The technological possibilities in many areas of environmental protection - energy saving, energy efficiency, use of renewable energies, waste and water management, etc. - have been identified to a great extent. Yet existing analyses of potential show a clear ‘implementation gap’.

 For example in the field of corporate energy efficiency, it can be demonstrated that although there are technologically feasible and economically meaningful potentials for reducing energy consumption, the number of measures aimed at increasing energy efficiency actually implemented is very small. In various branches of industry the technological potentials of energy saving range between 25 and 35 %, while the saving potential in the textile industry is assumed to be as high as 48 % (german enquête commission “Protection of the Earth’s atmosphere”, 1995). The usefulness of customary techno- and macro-economical models in illuminating the existing implementation gap comes up against limiting factors where what is involved is the transition from identifying existing potentials to real-world implementation of corporate environmental protection measures. The obstacles to implementing objectives of environmental policy are not only to be found at the level of the basic political and economical setting, e.g. externalization of environmental costs in pricing policy in the market economy, but rather in actual everyday behaviour of the actors and decision-makers e.g. in the administration and commercial enterprises.

Sustainable change cannot be achieved by means of shaping ecological awareness and improved information alone. We see energy efficiency activities rather as a process of innovation and restructuring at the individual and organisational level. On the basis of the dynamism and interplay of these two levels, in the following we will identify obstacles and, above all, fostering factors that we feel impede or promote ecologically aware behaviour to a particularly large extent. First we will analyse these factors with regard to the level of individual actors (motivation), later widening our angle to cover the field of actor networking (co-operation and participation). Subsequently we will try to present possible approaches and possibilities of intervention to promote energy-efficient behaviour that belong to the level of organisation and management of social change (social marketing).


2.0 Empirical studies

The conclusions drawn in this paper regarding the implementation of energy efficiency measures are based upon two empirical studies, one carried out by our “Climate Protection” project team ( University of Kiel ) and one in which said team was involved within the scope of an interdisciplinary research project. The research partners here are the Fraunhofer Institute ISI ( Karlsruhe) and the „Wuppertal Institute für Klima, Umwelt, Energie“.


2.1 Structure of the studies

The first study (Prose, Hübner, 1996) deals with the question as to which factors at the level of local government impede and promote implementation of existing energy concepts. In order to obtain as wide a range of practical information as possible, interviews were carried out with actors and decision-makers from various areas of local government (energy management, politics, administration, committees, citizens’ initiatives and associations), surveying actors from three local authority districts and one administrative district.

Altogether, the survey on impeding and fostering factors encompassed 26 interviews with 30 interviewees. A standardised interview guide was developed in order to guarantee comparability of the results.

The second study looked into the question as to which factors make initiation and implementation of energy saving and climate protection programmes successful by analysing “best practice” examples (Hennicke, Jochem, Prose, 1997) . For this purpose, programmes are selected that could be regarded as successful or promising prototypes or classic examples. Criteria of success were:

- sustainability (indicators: change in the willingness and possibilities of the target group to act, and the change in energy-relevant behaviour,
- directly measurable indicators, for example with regard to energy consumption,
- cost efficiency of the measure,
- diffusion of the measure and
- the political effects emanating from the programme.

Within a range of case studies we investigated pilot programmes for market launch of regenerative energies, least-cost planning and electricity saving activities, initiatives of ecological building in a new housing estate, “impulse programmes” for further training in the field of rational use of energy, an energy consultation concept for the chimney sweep trade, and several so-called “Brundtland towns”. Brundtland towns are local administration areas that have undertaken to implement exemplary climate protection concepts. The aim is to implement measures that can essentially be translated to other districts and that above all initiate processes of organisational, structural and social change.

Data was first collected by means of document analysis (evaluation studies, meta-analyses, information of programme organisers, etc.). Another central element of data collection - as also in the first study - involved interviews geared to a guide that were conducted with 46 actors from the case examples. The interview partners included mayors of climate protecting districts, inhabitants of eco-estates, managers of municipal facilities, engineering offices, and representatives of ministries, associations and trade guilds.

The interviews were conducted over the period of May to November 1996. In the course of evaluation work, the factors of success were identified with the aid of an analysis of the contents of the available (interview) texts.

2.2 Systematology of results

The perspective we take in studying the implementation of energy efficiency is that of an ongoing social process involving the interaction of different actors in and outside of organisations. The process develops from an initial stage of motivation (willingness to act) over several steps of problem-solving to a stage, where continuation is possible on the basis of the experiences made by the different actors (evaluation and feedback). As the diagram below shows, the process of implementation can also be looked upon as a spiralling process of individual and organisational learning. This view does not imply, that implemantation is always straightforward and following a rational plan. In practice, realisation tends to be incomplete and having unexpected side effects. Plateaus, stops and fall backs to earlier stages are possible.

In the appendix of this paper we use the framework, that also mirrors the structure of the interview guide applied in the case studies, as an overall structure that allows for the integration and systematic presentation of the findings. The appendix should not be looked upon as a „cooking book“, but rather as a list of inspiring questions, that can help actors with the understanding and planning of their own implementation attempts.





In this paper we will restrict our attention to selected central aspects of implementation that we feel to be particularly important from the psychological viewpoint. Hence, this is not an attempt to provide a complete run-down of all relevant factors. But the following text refers to the hindering and fostering factors listed systematically in the appendix.


3.0 Motivation and participation as core psychological processes

Two focal points to which the surveyed actors attach great significance for successful implementation of energy efficiency programmes are indicated in all case examples and affect all stages of implementation. Interviewees see problems with both of these factors, also for the “stories of success” used in our study, and indicate the need for support. These are the subjects “co-operation and participation” and “motivation”. They underscore the fact that exploiting energy saving potentials on a large scale is also a psycho-social problem area.


3.1 Motivation

What is involved in an initial partial process of implementation is to develop the willingness of potential actors for (energy-efficient / climate protecting) behaviour. Initially, according to statements made by the actors, it would appear to make little sense to presume any particular motive for climate protection or energy saving. Or at least a general motive for environmental protection is not differentiated in the abstract. Although the motive for environmental protection does have an important function for individual willingness to enact energy efficiency programmes, it would not appear to be the sole decisive factor, indeed in many cases it is not even a main motivation.

The question of motivation must be answered in a subtly differentiated manner for various groups of actors. The answers supplied by the interviewees make it clear, for example, that we must distinguish between the motivation of initiators, financial backers and various target groups. Actors who initiate climate protection thus do not tend to act with a view to pure self-benefit. Rather, their decisions are geared to long-term, more ecological and (also global) social objectives, feeling responsibility in terms of surmounting the climate problem. They are “innovators” on their own initiative. Although there would have been no negative consequences for them in the short or long term if they had not initiated energy efficiency programmes, indeed they would even have saved money and work and avoided the risks involved.

It is by means of intensive commitment that initiators have to convince other people, e.g. top managers, of the benefit of the proposed measures. In the process, they often have to adjust their procedure to combinations of motives that are different to their own. Although environmental protection does play a significant role in the decision-making process of the institutions, energy supply companies, and local authorities that actually implement the energy saving activities, it is basically one factor among many, particularly of an economical nature. In addition to environmental and climate protection, the interviewees from the local administration districts also indicate safeguarding locations, attractiveness for inhabitants, sustainable development of the towns, advantages for status (tourism, spa facilities) in competition with other cities as motives for enacting energy saving programmes. For energy suppliers, safeguarding the company’s future (customer ties) is a factor equally as important or more important than the environmental aspect.

Recognising additional motives is important with those groups for whom the subject of “energy efficiency” previously had insufficient appeal. Past experience has shown this to be true with general trade and manual trades. Manual trades can more likely be motivated by means of opening up new fields of business, for example the heat supply market that has such a promising future. By way of this heat supply, it will be possible to consolidate long-term customer ties in particular. However, the necessity of having to convince customers credibly of the benefits of energy saving and environmental protection could also indirectly change the attitudes of the manual workers themselves.

The different motivations to be found among initiators, decision-makers and co-operation partners correspond to a differentiation of potential participants in energy efficiency programmes. In consumer research it has proven to be useful to distinguish between value-lifestyle-consumer behaviour patterns with which utterly different motives may be connected and which form the basis for classifying target groups. Energy saving programmes can be more efficient where the measures and projects, possible financial and psycho-social incentives, lines of communications, etc., are fine-tuned to meet the needs of specific target groups. Enacting analyses of this kind and developing target-group specific marketing strategies does, however, require professional support for initiators and actors.


3.2 Co-operation and participation

A phase of radical change would appear to promote receptivity for new concepts in the energy sector, at least in local authority districts. This can be in the form of an expertise with a forecast of local development, structural change, a feared negative development. The initiative and personal willingness to take risks of individuals seems to be a decisive factor in deciding to take action towards implementing energy saving programmes.

The initiators we encountered in our investigations were generally personalities with commitment, persuasive power and mostly formal influence. However, the objective of climate protection cannot be achieved through one single main actor, but rather through as many actors as possible identifying themselves with this objective. Successful implementation of energy efficiency programmes thus requires that the initiators succeed in initiating a social process with the aid of their opinion-leader qualities, a process that wins as many other opinion leaders and a broader basis for the idea.

An essential prerequisite for success indicated in the interviews was often the consensus between decision-makers, project sponsors and the most important implementation actors. Both at the local level (self administration) and in the energy supply companies (staff) we can find indications that the decision to implement an energy efficiency programme should be grounded on a broad basis. In the Brundtland towns a basis for further joint decisions is formed by the self-imposed obligation of local bodies to reduce energy consumption per inhabitant and to reduce CO2 emissions in an exemplary manner.

Success is also contingent upon whether it is possible to win important actors as co-operation partners for implementation. The selection of co-operation partners should be geared to content and above all must take into account the concerns of local residents. Co-operation partners often listed include general trade, manual trade, energy supply companies and schools. Broad co-operation with the local setting is an important factor for success, the partners should be involved in conception of the programme at an early stage so as to promote identification with the objective and contents.

Success-relevant factors indicated include contacts with multipliers and, through these (or directly), ongoing communication with the target group. Important activation and systematic participation of a wide range of different multipliers and co-operation partners seems to be most successful at the local level, albeit in highly divergent forms.

Through this “multiple-step-flow” process of communication and social influence, the actors hope that the top down movement will become a comparable bottom up movement. In this case, the basis, i.e. a wide section of the public, would relate to a climate protection or energy saving programme, would assume an active role in implementation and thus also become an actor in their own right.

In view of the fact that intensive participation is not achieved to any satisfactory degree, this can lead to disillusionment and perplexity amongst the actors. A profound need for know-how is expressed in order to activate the public. Outside support, i.e. from experts, is what is called for. In this area, social science has a need for application and research, e.g. with regard to the question of activating social networks.


4.0 Marketing perspective

The results of our investigations show that technological and economic improvements could be made in activating energy saving potential that is doubtless available. For example, new models of financing and operation can promote the use of block-type thermal power stations despite high investment costs. With regard to the costs of measures, there is some lack of information amongst house-owners and tenants that can be countered by providing assistance with calculation and comprehensible model computations.

But the results of evaluation of the case examples also confirm that in addition to technical and economical aspects of successful implementation, we must increasingly take into account the psychosocial facets. For different actors successful implementation means seeing oneself as a service provider in the energy sector, gearing their measures to the perspective of demand, i.e. the consumers, citizens and customers. As the significance of this factor is often inadequately taken into consideration, we would like to list several “policy” recommendations, i.e. to illustrate what approaches must be pursued by promotional measures in future.

We feel that it makes sense to support actors in developing flexible, locally adjusted and target group specific offers and to embed these in a professional social and ecological marketing strategy. On the one hand this requires measures establishing appropriate competencies of the actors, and on the other new services, e.g. by research institutes, universities, etc. should be developed and made available in co-operation with the actors.

4.1 Ecological and social marketing

Introduction and implementation of ecological innovations is a process of technical and social change for administrations and companies, a process that can be planned strategically. The focus of planning is systematic organisation of a process of learning shared by all actors that leads to development and acceptance of product or process innovations. The planned change at the level of organisations can thus strategically be geared to the conception of ecological and social marketing (Kotler & Roberto, 1991). It comprises the following important steps:

Analysis:This involves describing the basic situation, e.g. the question of where potentials can be found (for instance in terms of energy savings) and which factors promote and inhibit implementation. For the purpose of analysis, we can develop scenarios describing possible future developments of the company, e.g. “business as usual” (specifically “worst case”) and an alternative scenario using technical and economic measures. Well-prepared analyses can counteract carelessness and can evidence the necessity of documenting processes of change which they can incidentally also trigger.

Planning: On the basis of the analysis, objectives are defined and a flexible implementation plan is developed specifying the instrument mix used to initiate change and the sequence of individual steps of implementation. Areas targeted for change can include investments in more ecologically compatible technologies; changing individual behaviour patterns; introduction of organisational measures promoting environmentally friendly behaviour. In these areas it will usually be realistic and make sense not to make any drastic changes but rather to apply the principle of (successive) little steps in implementation. Little steps have features that can facilitate acceptance of innovation for those involved (e.g. less risk, less complexity, better communicability, etc.). However, little steps only make sense if they are integrated into a process of the company coming closer to the objective of “energy efficiency”, i.e. steps that are located in a medium or long-term plan of change with increasing complexity.

Monitored implementation: The process of implementation can be documented and it is possible to monitor whether and to what extent milestones have been achieved with the aid of economical, ecological and social (e.g. acceptance) criteria. The results of process evaluation can be used for status reports for in-firm communication. Process monitoring and evaluation enable feedback loops and adaptation procedures at shorter intervals.

Summative evaluation and feedback: Summative evaluation (assessment of total results) at the end of major sections of planning and implementation is designed to facilitate integrated evaluation and exploitation of experience. The result of previous experience is utilised in the analysis and planning of further implementation activities of the company. Translating experience obtained in one area to other areas (energy, water, etc.) allows synergy effects.


4.2 Public campaigns

In order to increase public acceptance of energy saving and energy efficiency, to liven up demand for energy services, and to contribute to opening up markets for related products, public campaigns addressing the wide public should be carried out, stimulating concrete action. The probability of these campaigns being effective can be increased if they offer the opportunity of participation, if feedback of success occurs and if a wide range of local or regional groups is involved as sponsors or supporters (participative social marketing, Prose 1994 a,b). Campaigns of this kind keep the “energy” issue in the public eye and can have a consolidatory effect for politics and business.


4.3 Qualified support of the marketing process

The shortcomings in terms of marketing identified in the investigation cannot be offset by training all actors to become “professionals”. We recommend a centralised marketing service of a planning and strategical nature. This institution should offer the individual groups of actors concrete action strategies that can essentially be translated to other situations but which leave enough scope for adaptation to specific local circumstances. In planning, implementing and evaluating local measures and actions, such an institution could assume service and support tasks. Here, it is important to proceed in an interdisciplinary manner. Concepts of social marketing can form joint terms of reference in which various perspectives of engineers, economists and social psychologists can be taken into account.

By means of application-specific research, the marketing service supplies current data on market and consumer analysis, market segmentation and target group identification. The service develops and tests individual elements of a segment specific marketing mix (e.g. information materials, audio-visual materials) and supplies professional support in elaborating communication strategies (PR work). In order to be able to learn from actions etc. it is necessary to monitor effectiveness and success to a greater extent than previously. Implementation of a systematic evaluation comparable for a range of various projects could be one of the central tasks of the institution. The task of supporting research and evaluation can hardly be achieved by individual groups of actors. The centralised facility would be particularly well suited to fulfil these tasks in terms of its know-how and other ressources. An integral component of the evaluation methods should be the comparable and systematic identification of energy consumptions that are evaluated on a continuous basis. By means of feedback to the target groups, it is possible to enable comparisons, to visualise successes and to open up savings potentials.


5.0 Measures supporting the marketing approach

5.1 Training and qualification

The aim should be to develop training and qualification concepts which can help improve customer-orientation of the actors. The main focuses include for example training of communicative competence and mediating marketing know-how and skills. A particularly important group is manual trade that we can help consolidate its position as a service provider in the energy sector, to open up new markets, and to safeguard long-term competitiveness.

With the aid of the qualification scheme it is possible to convey service provider and marketing thinking to small firms in the manual trade sector, too, integrating these aspects as a new corporate philosophy in staff training and motivation.


5.2 Promotion of co-operation

In the energy service sector, diffusion of innovations is essentially via model behaviour of comparable companies and communication in social networks. Building a network of energy actors from various sectors can help create a supporting setting for energy services. The network can safeguard exchange of experience and know-how, for instance in the form of moderated groups, it can enable a certain degree of efficiency monitoring of the various approaches and, above all, can exploit “best practice” cases and examples of success as models for change, multiplying them in a targeted fashion.

Particularly small and medium-sized companies and local district authorities will be interested in the possibility of opening up additional resources through co-operation with other actors and of enabling synergy effects. For example, joint development of public relations work, demonstration projects, staff training, utilisation of external expertise (e.g. universities) are all expedient factors.

The importance of co-operations was repeatedly demonstrated in our case studies, from forming project groups for ecological building to inclusion of local market partners in available heat concepts. Participation of the business world, particularly the manual trades, is a substantial factor for success. Networking and co-operation with public authorities and also with energy supply companies should be promoted. For example, the manual trades play a mediator role between energy suppliers and demand, i.e. consumers, that should be consolidated in a targeted manner. The customer orientation of the manual trades should be integrated systematically into building up and mediating energy services.


5.3 Setting up an information and communication system

The rapid development and increasing dissemination of New Media is giving birth to a wide range of innovative applications in the energy service sector. Creating a customer and demand oriented interactive, energy related information and communication system enables additional possibilities of design and an additional link to regional and local activities that can be updated and further developed.

In our case studies we were able to demonstrate that the possibilities of energy services are partly restricted by the fact that there is either a lack of possibilities of providing information, or such possibilities are regarded as being extremely time-consuming, or no problem-specific possibilities of exchange are known or perceived (due to pressure of time) pertaining to concrete matters of implementation. In view of the fact that there is also often a lack of internal know-how concerning energy services, new transfer possibilities are gaining special importance with regard to the surveyed actors.

User orientation is a central idea in developing the system of interaction and communication outlined above. This is why the programme items must be designed on an interactive, demand oriented basis. The system can essentially be subdivided into submodules that will have to be used in an integrated manner. One the one hand, an open database system should be developed on which the user-friendly Internet standard (World Wide Web) is based. This system could provide a wide variety of multimedia data sources, text, audio and image, in the following fields: basic political, legal and financial conditions (e.g. environmental and energy law, subsidies, contracting, etc.), organisational investment possibilities (environmental and energy management systems) and model or demonstration examples (“best practice”). In another separate element, the system provides help and consulting (helping line). It links the actors in a problem-oriented manner with the (regional) consulting facilities to form a “science pool” that facilitates collaboration with e.g. universities of the region.

The interactive possibilities of the New Media should then be brought to bear in the following module, a communication system. Here, inquiries and feedback facilities should be provided that present an additional possibility for various actors in the energy service sector (companies, local authorities, environment and energy agencies, suppliers of environmentally friendly products, etc.) to exchange experience. The system should provide support by passing on user ideas, linking existing competencies, initiating new co-operations and thus generating synergy effects. The possibility of linking the system to other media (press, special conventions, specialised journals, associations, etc.) and to personal communication will be of great importance. On another level, the system can also provide feedback concerning successful activities and can offer actors the possibility of and support in ecological marketing.


5.4 Qualified direct consultation

The electronic information and communication system outlined above can become an important component of intensive consultation. For example, it can help convey the latest state of the art. Its interactive make-up makes it possible to identify the need for consultation of various target groups and to fine-tune the offer of services. Consultation services should be developed in an interdisciplinary manner.

However, another aim should be to optimise direct consultation, i.e. personal and on the spot. The interplay of various consultation services should be promoted by means of co-ordination and co-operation. For example, it would be helpful for users to be able to get easy information on where to obtain general and more detailed, specific consultation services.


6.0 Final remarks

From the psychological point of view it may be said that active implementation of energy efficiency measures requires that we develop different behaviour patterns both at the level of the individual actor and at the general organisational level. The motivational backgrounds of the actors and decision-makers, the way they see themselves, and the level of organisational structure (superior objectives and visions) are a crucial starting point for ecologically oriented action in institutions and companies. Individual measures of environmental protection should thus not be seen as separate to everyday company activities but should rather be integrated into a higher, process-oriented strategy of company development and learning.

So far, political and corporate decision-makers have primarily focused on economical and order policy measures as suitable instruments for implementing environmentally relevant innovations. These measures must be augmented by strategies of motivating and convincing that essentially require application of strategies of social and ecological marketing. In developing, implementing and evaluating marketing systems the actors should be provided with professional support.



Enquête-Kommission „Schutz der Erdatmosphäre“ des 12. Deutschen Bundestages (1995), Schlußbericht, Economica Verlag 1995.

Hennicke, P., Jochem, E. & Prose, F. (Hrsg.), Interdisziplinäre Analyse der Umsetzungschancen einer Energiespar- und Klimaschutzpolitik. Forschungsbericht, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Wuppertal, 1997.

Kotler, Ph., Roberto, E. (1991). Social marketing. ECON Verlag, Düsseldorf.

Prose, F. (1994 a): Ansätze zur Veränderung von Umweltbewußtsein und Umweltverhalten aus sozialpsychologischer Perspektive. In: Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung und Umweltschutz Berlin (Hrsg.) Neue Wege im Energiespar-Marketing, Materialien zur Energiepolitik in Berlin, Heft 16, p.14-23.

Prose, F. (1994 b): Systematik von Energiespar-Kampagnen am Beispiel der Klimaschutzaktion nordlicht. In: Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung und Umweltschutz Berlin (Hrsg.) Neue Wege im Energiespar-Marketing, Materialien zur Energiepolitik in Berlin, Heft 16, p. 69-72.

Prose, F. & Hübner, G. (1996): Organisation des Klimaschutzes auf kommunaler Ebene. In: Timp, D. W. & Günther, R. (Hrsg.), Umweltpsychologische Berichte aus Forschung und Praxis, 3/1996, BDP-Bundesausschuß Umweltpsychologie, Reutlingen, p. 105-113.




Systematic overview of factors fostering the implementation of energy efficiency measures


(Source: Hennicke, Jochem, Prose (Hrsg.), 1997, Ch. 6,
revised by the authors of this paper)





The following tables present factors found in our case studies that support:
1. the willingness to act in the area of energy efficiency,
2. the decision to implement an energy efficiency programme,
3. it’s conception and implementation and
4. the evaluation resp. the feedback in the course of the programme.

Readers should keep in mind, that the factors are not „objective“, but derived from the subjective view of the interviewed actors.




Innovative actors
Individual innovative actors have an important function as regards problem perception of organisations (companies, associations etc.).



Status of environmental protection was not necessarily high for organisations. Clusters of motives and objektives were characteristic of decision of innovative actors; with companies e.g.: Image, customer ties, collecting experience.

Material incentives are seen as most effective, non-material above all effective as supplementary elements.


Social influence

Social norms were particularly influential in the form of negative incentives (public pressure).

Positive social incentives and rewards are still inadequate represented.


Experiences and models
Previous experience is helpful. Successful mediation of experience particularly by means of successful models (e.g. other companies) and experience reports.








Environmental protection decisions in organisations were instrumentally initiated and promoted by committed actors in these organisations.


Sense of mastery
More decisive than the actual obstacles was the will to overcome or circumvent them.


Social pressure
Decision-making pressure from outside the organisation was fostering.


Support by management
The management must support the activities, otherwise they are not credible. xperience repo








Models and experiences
Make successful models and experience reports accessible within the organisation.


The analysis of the technical-economical baseline, of one’s own skills and competencies and additionally of target groups is an important factor of preparation


Create an early and broad-basis cooperation with the local actors (keyword „networking.“).


Make a test run ( not only for monitoring the programme technically but also for communication purposes).








Top-level support
Objectives should be firmly grounded at the top level of organisation`s hierarchy.


Hierarchy of goals
Objectives should be formulated at various levels - top priorities in a rather abstract nature and sub-objectives of a more instrumental nature.


Integration of energy saving goals
Energy efficiency objectives should be integrated in a list of objectives reflecting clusters of motives and instruments.


Measurableinterim results
Time-limited, measurable milestones should be determined as the basis of an efficient programme controlling system.


The starting time of a programme should be set in a targeted, strategical manner (keyword „.event setting“).








Learning from experience
Orientation to exemplary precursor programmes.


Choice and package solutions
Possibilities of choice and package solutions for the target group (material, time).



Dispelling hindering factors in target group (psychological and social costs).

Holistic reduction of complexity for the target group (material, time).


Material and immaterial incentives

Avoiding material losses for the target group, integration of financial incentives.

Economic advantages are important for programme participation, further motivational increase by immaterial incentives.








Programme expenditure
Reduction of programme expenditure by following routine activities, standardisation, and free provision of third party services.


Risk assumption
Risk assumption by suitable persons or institutions in case of necessary pre-funding.


Additional sources
Find sources in addition to public budgets, e.g. via contributions, donations, participation fees, etc.









Building up early and broad-basis co-operations.

Utilisation of institutional networks and co-operations for widespread impact.





Clear-cut responsibility

Securing clear-cut competencies and responsibilities.

At least equal importance of organisational and communicational competence alongside technical competence on behalf of key actors.

Creating a small core team.


Communication channels
Establish clear communication structures and short communication channels.


Link to routines
Link-up the programme to everyday routines








Staff capacity
High status for appropriate staff capacity, also for reasons of flexibility and widespread impact.


Staff selection
Key positions also filled according to criteria such as commitment and charisma.


Staff training and motivation
Motivation of staff, e.g. through special training, information and social reward.


Trusted multipliers
Participation of persons and institutions who already have trust and credibility in the target group.








High effort
‚ High intensity of promotion and appropriate provision of funds.


Personal relevance
Pay attention to local link, clarity and real-world practicality of the information, message conveyed.


Communicate the wide variety of advantages of participating in the programme, taking aspects of economic efficiency into account.


Face-to-face communication
Use of word of mouth and personal talks to step up knowledge of the programme.


Opinion leaders

Secure participation of multipliers and opinion-leaders, particularly with regional link, and institutions without vested interests.

Considerate the self-interest of multipliers in success of the programme.


Social comparison
Prompting processes of social comparison (neighbourhood, municipal district etc.) and competition.








Ongoing programme monitoring and evaluation is a precondition for systematic further development and organic integration into existing structures.


Developing suitable standards and measuring instruments even at planning stage.


Process-evaluation and corrections

Enable corrections in the course of the programme by means of process evaluation. Precondition: flexible reactions must be possible in the programm.

Process evaluation ( in the sense of systematic observation of the overall programme process), with the aim of holistic optimisation and systematic learning for the future, has not yet been put into practice in our case studies.








Keeping attention
Feedback of intermediate results keeps the programme in people’s minds.


Besides keeping attention and signalling progress, feedback can generate community spirit and a feeling of belonging. It engenders further motivation to participate.


Look at feedback as a precondition for generating a process of dialogue and interactive exchange between actors and participants.


Positive relations
Consider feedback also because of the positive effect on programme organisers (image, customer ties).


Particularly important for the mediation of feedback to the public is good contact with local press.



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